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Minggu, 27 November 2011

Selamat Tahun Baru Islam 1 Muharam 1433 Hijriyah

The Hijri date is the Islamic calendar. It started in the moon year in which prophet Muhammad  immigrated from Makkah to Madinah.

Sumber gambar klik


Tahun Baru Islam kali ini jatuh pada tanggal 27 November 2011 atau 1 Muharam 1433 Hijriyah.
Sebelum itu ada baiknya jika pada Tahun baru Islam kita membaca doa diakhir tahun dan awal tahun Baru islam yang dianjurkan dari Rasulillah SAW
Namun sebelum itu ingin mengenal dahulu dan melihat kebelakang tentang sejarah Hijriyah,


Sejarah Hijriyah
Bulan Muharram bagi umat Islam dipahami sebagai bulan Hijrahnya Nabi Muhammad SAW dari Makkah ke Madinah 14 abad silam, yang sebelumnya bernama “Yastrib”. Sebenarnya  kejadian hijrah Rasulullah tersebut terjadi pada malam tanggal 27 Shafar dan sampai di Yastrib (Madinah) pada tanggal 12 Rabiul awal. Adapun pemahaman bulan Muharram sebagai bulan Hijrah Nabi, karena bulan Muharram adalah bulan yang pertama dalam kalender Qamariyah yang oleh Umar bin Khattab, yang ketika itu beliau sebagai khalifah kedua sesudah Abu Bakar, dijadikan titik awal mula kalender bagi umat Islam dengan diberi nama Tahun Hijriah.

Para shalihin mengajarkan kita untuk berdoa ketika menjelang pergantian tahun. Dan dibawah ini adalah doa akhir tahun dan awal tahun yang lafadznya cukup terkenal karena banyak terdapat di buku-buku doa.

Doa Akhir Tahun
Bacalah doa ini tiga kali saat menjelang akhir tahun baru Islam, bisa dilakukan sesudah ashar atau sebelum maghrib pada tanggal 29 atau 30 Dzulhijah. Dengan doa ini kita memohon ketika kita akan mengakhiri perjalanan tahun yang akan ditinggalkan ini akan mendapatkan ampunan dari Allah Swt. atas perbuatan-perbuatan yang dilarang oleh-Nya, dan apabila dalam tahun yang akan ditinggalkannya itu ada perbuatan-perbuatan yang diridhai oleh Allah Swt yang kita kerjakan, maka mohonlah agar amal shaleh tersebut diterima oleh Allah Swt.




















Bismillaahir-rahmaanir-rahiim
Wa shallallaahu 'ala sayyidinaa Muhammadin wa 'alaa aalihi wa shahbihii wa sallam.
Allaahumma maa 'amiltu fi haadzihis-sanati mimmaa nahaitani 'anhu falam atub minhu wa lam tardhahu wa lam tansahu wa halamta 'alayya ba'da qudratika 'alaa uquubati wa da'autani ilattaubati minhu ba'da jur'ati alaa ma'siyatika fa inni astaghfiruka fagfirlii wa maa 'amiltu fiihaa mimma tardhaahu wa wa'adtani 'alaihits-tsawaaba fas'alukallahumma yaa kariimu yaa dzal-jalaali wal ikram an tataqabbalahuu minni wa laa taqtha' rajaai minka yaa karim, wa sallallaahu 'alaa sayyidinaa Muhammadin Nabiyyil ummiyyi wa 'alaa 'aalihii wa sahbihii wa sallam
Artinya:
Dengan menyebut nama Allah Yang Maha Pemurah lagi Maha Penyayang.
Semoga Allah melimpahkan rahmat dan keselamatan kepada junjungan kami Nabi Muhammad SAW,beserta para keluarga dan sahabatnya. Ya Allah, segala yang telah ku kerjakan selama tahun ini dari apa yang menjadi larangan-Mu, sedang kami belum bertaubat, padahal Engkau tidak melupakannya dan Engkau bersabar (dengan kasih sayang-Mu), yang sesungguhnya Engkau berkuasa memberikan siksa untuk saya, dan Engkau telah mengajak saya untuk bertaubat sesudah melakukan maksiat. Karena itu ya Allah, saya mohon ampunan-Mu dan berilah ampunan kepada saya dengan kemurahan-Mu.
Segala apa yang telah saya kerjakan, selama tahun ini, berupa amal perbuatan yang Engkau ridhai dan Engkau janjikan akan membalasnya dengan pahala, saya mohon kepada-Mu, wahai Dzat Yang Maha Pemurah, wahai Dzat Yang Mempunyai Kebesaran dan Kemuliaan, semoga berkenan menerima amal kami dan semoga Engkau tidak memutuskan harapan kami kepada-Mu, wahai Dzat Yang Maha Pemurah.
Dan semoga Allah memberikan rahmat dan kesejahteraan atas penghulu kami Muhammad, Nabi yang Ummi dan ke atas keluarga dan sahabatnya.

Doa Tahun Baru Islam

Doa Awal Tahun
Bacalah doa ini tiga kali saat kita memasuki tanggal 1 Muharam. Bisa dilakukan selepas maghrib atau pun sesudahnya. Dengan doa ini kita sebagai Mu'min memohon kepada Allah Swt. agar dalam memasuki tahun baru ini kita dapat meningkatkan amal kebajikan dan ketaqwaan.

















Bismillaahir-rahmaanir-rahiim
Wa shallallaahu 'alaa sayyidinaa Muhammadin wa 'alaa 'aalihi wa shahbihii wa sallam.
Allaahumma antal-abadiyyul-qadiimul-awwalu, wa 'alaa fadhlikal-'azhimi wujuudikal-mu'awwali, wa haadza 'aamun jadidun qad aqbala ilaina nas'alukal 'ishmata fiihi minasy-syaithaani wa auliyaa'ihi wa junuudihi wal'auna 'alaa haadzihin-nafsil-ammaarati bis-suu'i wal-isytighaala bimaa yuqarribuni
ilaika zulfa yaa dzal-jalaali wal-ikram yaa arhamar-raahimin, wa sallallaahu 'alaa sayyidina Muhammadin nabiyyil ummiyyi wa 'alaa 'aalihi wa shahbihii wa sallam
Artinya:
Dengan menyebut nama Allah Yang Maha Pemurah lagi Maha Penyayang.
Semoga Allah senantiasa melimpahkan rahmat dan keselamatan kepada junjungan kami Nabi Muhammad SAW, beserta keluarga dan sahabatnya.
Ya Allah Engkaulah Yang Abadi, Dahulu, lagi Awal. Dan hanya kepada anugerah-Mu yang Agung dan Kedermawanan-Mu tempat bergantung.
Dan ini tahun baru benar-benar telah datang. Kami memohon kepada-Mu perlindungan dalam tahun ini dari (godaan) setan, kekasih-kekasihnya dan bala tentaranya. Dan kami memohon pertolongan untuk mengalahkan hawa nafsu amarah yang mengajak pada kejahatan,agar kami sibuk melakukan amal yang dapat mendekatkan diri kami kepada-Mu wahai Dzat yang memiliki Keagungan dan Kemuliaan. Semoga Allah senantiasa melimpahkan rahmat dan keselamatan kepada junjungan kami Nabi Muhammad SAW, Nabi yang ummi dan ke atas para keluarga dan sahabatnya.

Sumber:http://www.ilmuini.com/2011/11/doa-tahun-baru-islam.html


THE ISLAMIC (HIJRI) CALENDAR


1. HISTORY AND MOTIVATION

The Islamic Calendar, which is based purely on lunar cycles, was first introduced in 638 C.E. by the close companion of the Prophet and the second Caliph, `Umar ibn Al-KHaTTab (592-644 C.E.). He did it in an attempt to rationalize the various, at times conflicting, dating systems used during his time. `Umar consulted with his advisors on the starting date of the new Muslim chronology. It was finally agreed that the most appropriate reference point for the Islamic calendar was the _Hijrah_. The actual starting date for the Calendar was chosen (on the basis of purely lunar years, counting backwards) to be the first day of the first month (1 MuHarram) of the year of the Hijrah. The Islamic (Hijri) calendar (with dates that fall within the Muslim Era) is usually abbreviated A.H. in Western languages from the latinized _Anno Hegirae_. MuHarram 1, 1 A.H. corresponds to July 16, 622 C.E.
The Hijrah, which chronicles the migration of the Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) from Makkah to Madinah in September 622 C.E., is the central historical event of early Islam. It led to the foundation of the first Muslim city-state, a turning point in Islamic and world history.
To Muslims, the Hijri calendar is not just a sentimental system of time reckoning and dating important religious events (e.g., Siyaam (fasting) and Hajj (pilgrimage to Makkah)). It has a much deeper religious and historical significance.
Muhammad Ilyes [Ilyes84] quotes Nadvi who wrote:
``It (the advent of the 15th century) is indeed, a unique
     occasion to ponder that the Islamic Era did not start
     with the victories of Islamic wars, nor with the birth
     or death of the prophet (PBUH), nor with the Revelation
     itself.  It starts with Hijra, or the sacrifice for the
     cause of Truth and for the preservation of the Revelation.
     It was a divinely inspired selection.  God wanted to teach
     man that struggle between Truth and Evil is eternal.  The
     Islamic year reminds Muslims every year not of the pomp
     and glory of Islam but of its sacrifice and prepares them
     to do the same.''
From a historical angle, Ilyes quotes Samiullah who writes:
``All the events of Islamic history, especially those which 
      took place during the life of the Holy Prophet and afterwards
      are quoted in the Hijra calendar era.  But our calculations 
      in the Gregorian calendar keep us away from those events and 
      happenings, which are pregnant of admonitory lessons and guiding
      instructions.
      ...And this chronological study is possible only by adopting the
      Hijri calendar to indicate the year and the lunar month in line
      with our cherished traditions.''
2. SPECIFICATION AND METHOD

The Islamic (Hijri) year consists of twelve (purely lunar) months.
They are: 

(1) MuHarram
(2) Safar
(3) Raby` al-awal
(4) Raby` al-THaany
(5) Jumaada al-awal
(6) Jumaada al-THaany
(7) Rajab
(8) SHa`baan
(9) RamaDHaan
(10) SHawwal
(11) Thw al-Qi`dah
(12) Thw al-Hijjah

The most important dates in the Islamic (Hijri) year are:
1 MuHarram (Islamic new year);  27 Rajab (Isra & Miraj);  1 RamaDHaan 
(first day of fasting);  17 RamaDHan (Nuzul Al-Qur'an);  Last 10
days of RamaDHaan which include Laylatu al-Qadar;  1 SHawwal 
(`iyd al-FiTr);  8-10 Thw al-Hijjah (the Hajj to Makkah);  and 
10 Thw al-Hijjah (`iyd al-'aDHHae).

It is considered a divine command to use a (Hijra) calendar with 12 (purely)
lunar months without intercalation [Ilyes84], as evident from the following
verses of the Holy Qur`an (Trans: A. Yusuf Ali):

They ask thee
     the New Moons
     Say: They are but signs
     To mark fixed periods of time
     In (the affairs of) men
     And for Pilgrimage.   (II:189)

     The number of months
     In the sight of Allah
     Is twelve (in a year)
     So ordained by Him
     The day He created
     The heavens and the earth;
     Of them four are sacred;
     That is the straight usage
     So wrong not yourselves
     Therein, and fight the Pagans. (IX: 36)

     Verily the transposing 
     (Of a prohibited month)
     Is an addition to Unbelief:
     The Unbelievers are led
     To wrong thereby: for they make
     it lawful one year,
     And forbidden another year,
     Of months forbidden by Allah
     And make such forbidden ones
     Lawful.  The evil of their course
     Seems pleasing to them.
     But Allah guideth not
     Those who reject Faith.  (IX: 37)
Since the Islamic calendar is purely lunar, as apposed to solar or luni-solar, the Muslim (Hijri) year is shorter than the Gregorian year by about 11 days, and months in the Islamic (Hijri) year are not related to seasons, which are fundamentally related to the solar cycle. This means that important Muslim festivals, which always fall in the same Hijri month, may occur in different seasons. For example, the Hajj and RamDHaan can take place in the summer as well as the winter. It is only over a 33 year cycle that lunar months take a complete turn and fall during the same season. For religious reasons, the beginning of a Hijri month is marked not by the start of a new moon, but by a physical (i.e., an actual human) sighting of the crescent moon at a given locale. From the Fiqhi standpoint, one may begin the fast in RamDHaan, for example, based on "local" sighting (IKHTILAF AL-MATALE') or based on sighting anywhere in the Muslim World (ITTEHAD AL-MATALE'). Although different, both of these positions are valid Fiqhi positions. Astronomically, some data are definitive and conclusive (i.e. the time of the BIRTH of a new moon). However, determining the VISIBILITY of the crescent is not as definitive or conclusive; rather it is dependent upon several factors, mostly optical in nature. This makes it difficult to produce (in advance) Islamic calendars that are reliable (in the sense that they are consistent with actual crescent visibility). Efforts for obtaining an astronomical criterion for predicting the time of first lunar visibility go back the the Babylonian era, with significant improvements and work done later by Muslim and other scientists. These efforts have resulted in the development in a number of criteria for predicting first possible sighting of a crescent. However, there remains a measure of uncertainty associated with all criteria developed thus far. Moreover, there has been little work in the area of estimating crescent visibility on global (as apposed to local) scale. Until this happens, no Hijri calendar software can be 100% reliable, and actual crescent sighting remains essential especially for fixing important dates such as the beginning of RamaDHaan and the two `iyds. The slight differences in printed Islamic calendars, worldwide, can therefore be traced to two primary factors: (1) the absence of a global criterion for first visibility; and (2) the use of different visibility criterion (or method of calculation). Weather conditions and differences in the observer's location also explain why there are sometimes differences in the observances of Islamic dates, worldwide. Readers interested in further information should consult Muhammad Ilyas' excellent book ``A Modern Guide to Astronomical Calculations of Islamic Calendar, Times & Qibla,'' Berita Publishing, 1984, (ISBN: 967-969-009-1). The book contains a thorough discussion of the Islamic calendrical system and related historical and scientific developments. It also presents a sound proposal for a universal Islamic Calendar based on a global visibility criterion and the concept of a Lunar Day (or International Lunar Date Line). Waleed Muhanna Tuesday 13 Jumaada al-THaany 1413 A.H. December 8, 1992
Source:http://www.islamicfinder.org



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